「ブドヨ・パンクル」公演(6月28日)の記事+写真が、雑誌Reader's Digest indonesia 2007年8月号(vol.5, no.8)に掲載されました。
ブドヨ公演評 by Alex Crowe
友人のAlex Croweが新聞に投稿すべく私の公演評を書いてくれました。残念ながら原稿は採用となりませんでしたが、ここに掲載します。

Rebirth of an Ancient Dance
by Alex Crowe

Review on the Javanese Court dance performance titled "Bedhaya Pangkur" in full length produced by Michi Tomioka

This week saw the first full length public performance since at least the 1970s of the Bedhaya Pangkur, a sacred ritual dance of the Surakarta royal palace. But the dance’s revival has been led not by the palace or by Surakarta’s illustrious arts institute, but by a Japanese researcher – for whom this performance is a dream come true.

The air pefumed with incense, the floor scattered with rose petals, we are in the realm of ritual and meditation. The slow processional entrance of the nine female dancers, immaculately costumed, sets the ceremonial tone, and the full choir of male and female voices gives a sense of grandeur. The rhythmic chime of the kamenak, floating above the sparse gamelan configuration used for this kind of dance, gradually becomes hypnotic. As the others kneel, a single dancer moves alone, her eyes cast down, her focus inward, her face glowing with an expression of quiet bliss in her absorption. Soon the whole group joins her, the small, slow, delicate movements of their hands and arms weaving a continual flow of inscrutable meanings. Their geometric positions in the space, periodically dissolving and reconstellating, seem to reflect something essential of the arrangement of the cosmos. Yet sublime as it is, by the end of an hour they are sweating visibly at such a feat of minute physical control and unbroken mental concetration.

This is not the natural environment for the dance. We are in a theatre, complete with a full lighting rig, and packed with spectators – a gathering including many leading lights of the Solo arts community, along with a smattering of grey haired Western enthusiasts. A couple of heavy duty video cameras hint at the historical importance of the event. The dancers themselves are not denizens of the royal palace, the Kraton. And the soloist, Michi Tomioka, who is also the director and producer of the whole event, is not Javanese, but Japanese.

For it is the Kraton where this dance, the Bedhaya Pangkur, has its true home. The palace dances, like the Bedhaya, are not entertainment, but sacred rituals, as well as repositories of ancient tradition, training practices in courtly refinement, and assertions of the legitimate authority of the ruler. The most sacred of them all, the Bedhaya Ketawang, is performed just once a year to commemorate the coronation of the current Susuhanan (sultan), and it is laden with traditions and taboos. It may only be performed in the presence of the Susuhanan; the dancers must fast, wear bridal dress and cover themselves in tumeric. Its origins, according to one of many legends, is the love dance of the goddess Ratu Kidul, Queen of the South Seas, for the great Sultan Agung in the 17th century. The practice of this greatest of Bedhaya has been supported through the dancing of several subsidiary forms, of which Bedhaya Pangkur, dating from around 1800, is one.

Something so sacred, so esoteric, must also be protected, and until recently, it was forbidden for anyone outside the Kraton to learn the dance. But ironically, the result has been that much Bedhaya material has, over the years, been lost. There are musical scores in the Kraton for Bedhaya for which the movements are now irrecoverably forgotten. The survival of the Bedhaya Pangkur, as with other court dances, owes much to a project, initiated by the Soeharto regime in the 1970s, to preserve traditional art forms in Indonesia. At that time, the Kraton was persuaded allow a number of professional dancers to study with its master teachers, and through them, knowledge of Bedhaya and Srimpi (another court dance) has passed into what is now ISI Solo, the city’s arts institute.

But the preservation of the dances also led to their corruption. According to Michi, who is currently completing doctoral research on the subject, the versions that are currently practised at ISI are shorter than the traditional Kraton versions, and at a faster tempo. There is also a new emphasis on exact synchronisation of all the dancers’ movements. Originally, there was more room for individual expression. Indeed, dancers in the Kraton were known to try to catch the Sultan’s eye, not least by using the movement judiciously to reveal a little bare flesh here and there.

Michi attributes the changes in the dance both to the individuals involved in teaching back in the 1970s, to general changes in Indonesian society towards a faster paced life, and to the influx of ideas from modern Western art. So while the Kraton is always revered as the great source of Javanese art and culture this can, she feels, be lip service. While she is glad that the dances are alive and developing – and they have evolved somewhat even with in the Kraton – there have also been losses: losses of details, of a sense of the integrity of the music and the dance, and the insertion of “many strange things”. Michi’s goal, then, is to revive and document the pre-1970s court dances.

But how did a Japanese woman come to take on the revival of so Javanese a tradition? It is a story of chance, perseverance, and, perhaps, of a dream come true. Michi was always fascinated by dance she saw on television as a child, but there was no opportunity to learn in her small town. She studied traditional Japanese dance at Osaka University, but as an academic, not a practitioner. Her first real contact with Javanese arts was when she joined a gamelan group – because it was free, and mistakenly thinking it was Balinese. This became the inspiration for a month in Java after graduating, during which she learned her first Javanese dance, albeit a popular dance, not from the court. After that, all she wanted to do was to return, and, by dint of hard work and hard saving, and repeated applications to funding bodies, return she did - repeatedly, eventually in stays of several years each. During those visits, she she studied in the Kraton with a former student of the old masters who were teaching the court dances before the 1970s.

This week’s performance is a culmination of her work, although she also plans further performances in Jakarta and elsewhere. It has taken a long time to gain recognition, and, as an outsider, it hasn’t always been easy. It was actually in Sumatra that her knowledge of Javanese arts first began to be publicly valued. Although she doesn’t mention it, it seems she has had to steer her way through a certain amount of politics from time to time. There are those in the Kraton who still disapprove of public knowledge and public performance of the palace dances. And Michi’s dancers include some of the most senior and respected dancers in Solo, steeped in the Institute’s version of the traditions. Perhaps, she says, as a Japanese, her starting point is different from that of her Javanese colleagues – but if there are many routes to the top of a mountain, they still all meet at the summit.

Pagelaran Tari Bedhaya Pangkur took place at Taman Budaya Jawa Tengah, Surakarta, on 28 June 2007.

Alex Crowe

Alex Croweのプロフィール
(2007年7月12日Taman Budaya Jawa Tengahでの公演リーフレットより)

dancer and choreographer bsed in London. ロンドン在住。英国、ヨーロッパ、米国、そして現在はインドネシアにて公演多数。その作品には彼が学んだクラシックやモダンの技法(ロンドン大学にてディプロマ取得)、Skiner Releasing Technique(アメリカで開発された創造的な動きのための技法、指導教員資格取得)、Action Theatre(身体に基づくインプロビゼーション演劇技法の一種)の影響が見られる。

2007年7月5日、Solopos紙、Kridha D面(ジャワ語)、記事+写真
"Bedhaya Pangkur Kababar ing TBS"

2007年7月12日、Solopos紙、Kridha D面(ジャワ語)、記事+写真
"Michi Tomioka asli Jepang wasis mbeksa"


[Kridha] Edisi : Kamis, 12 Juli 2007 , Hal.D

Michi Tomioka
Asli Jepang wasis mbeksa

Kacihna jejere asli wong Jepang, pranyata Michi Tomioka wasis mbeksa bedhaya apadene beksan tradhisi Jawa liyane. Miturut pratelane Michi sawetara dina kapungkur, dheweke pancen wis sawetara wektu nyinau lan gladhen beksan-beksan tradhisi Jawa kang pepunjer saka Karaton Kasunanan Surakarta.

Ing babaran beksan bedhaya pangkur cakepan asli Karaton, sawetara dina kapungkur, Michi maragani pambeksa utama. Pasuryane minangka wong Jepang pancen ora bisa ngapusi atusan wong kang mindeng babaran beksan sasuwene sakjam iku.
Kacihna ngrasuk busana dodot, bathik cakrik parang lan asesoris busana tradhisi Jawa liyane, nanging pasuryane tetep nuduhake yen Michi iku dudu wong Jawa. Ananging nalika mbeksa, pranyata ora kalah luwes kalawan pambeksa liyane kang asli wong Solo.
Michi kang klairan Jepang taun 1966, ing taun 1996-1998 lan taun 2000-2003 sinau seni tradhisi Jawa ing Sekolah Tinggi Seni Indonesia (STSI) Solo (saiki Institut Seni Indonesia utawa ISI Solo-red). Michi sinau beksan srimpi lan bedhaya ing Karaton Surakarta Hadiningrat. Dwija utamane swargi Sri Sutjiati Djoko Soehardjio lan Sulistyo Tirtokusumo.
Babaran beksan bedhaya pangkur sawetara dina kapungkur ora liya asile panalitene Michi kang disengkuyung dening API Fellowship saka Nippon Foundation kang tembayatan kalawan ISI Solo lan Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI). Asile panaliten iku kaanggit dadi karya ilmiah asesirah Revaluing Javanese Court Dance (Srimpi and Bedhaya) in the Recent Social and Cultural Contexts. ::pra::

●2007年6月28日Teatre Arena,Taman Budaya di Surakartaでの公演は、約300名の方々にご来場いただき、無事終了いたしました。




Photo by Heru Santoso(3枚とも)


"-Pertunjukan 'tari Bedhaya Pangkur' di TBS semalam- Merekonstruksi kembali karya PB IV dan PB VIII"

2007年6月30日、KOMPAS紙、JAWA TENGAH版A面、写真のみ
"Tari Bedhaya Pangkur"

"Saat keaslian Bedhaya Pangkur kembali hadir"

2007年6月30日、SUARA MERDEKA紙、MANAHAN P面、記事+写真
"Sukses, Pentas Bedhaya Pangkur"

2007年6月30日、Media Indonesia紙 Humaniora 8面、写真のみ
”Tari 'Bedhaya Pangkur' ”

2007年7月5日、Solopos紙、Kridha D面(ジャワ語)、記事+写真
"Bedhaya Pangkur Kababar ing TBS"

2007年7月12日、Solopos紙、Kridha D面(ジャワ語)、記事+写真
"Michi Tomioka asli Jepang wasis mbeksa"
ブドヨ公演 メディア掲載

"Pagelaran Bedhaya Pangkur di Taman Budaya Surakarta"

"Pagelaran Bedhaya Pangkur di Taman Budaya Surakarta"

banyumili networks
"Pergelaran Tari Bedhaya Pangkur di Solo"

Negeriku, Kompas Cyber Media 2007年6月26日
"Mahasiswi Jepang Gelar Tari Bedhaya Pangkur"

2007年6月26日 07:00-07:10am Ria FM "Selamat Pagi Surakarta"

"Pergelaran Tari Bedhaya Pangkur"

"Tari Bedhaya Pangkur akan disuguhkan dengan kosep asli"

「日本の舞踊家冨岡三智さん 古き宮廷舞踊再現 28日にソロで公演」

2007年6月27日、SUARA MERDEKA紙、MANAHAN P面、+写真
"Bahasa Kagok Penari Jawa Itu"

2007年6月27日、Jawa Pos紙、RADAR SOLO版1面+7面
"-Michi Tomioka, Tertantang Padukan Tari Jepang-Indonesia- Karakter Jepang Serba Cepat, Solo Sangat Lambat"

2007年6月28日、KOMPAS紙、JAWA TENGAH版A面+D面、+写真
"-Kesenian- Ketika Penari Asal Jepang Berlatih Menari... "

2007年6月28日、KORAN TEMPO紙、Seni C3面
"Tari Keraton Solo Dikonservasikan"
Press Release





Pagelaran Tari Bedhaya Pangkur
Waktu: Kamis, 28 Juni 2007, pk19:30
Tempat:Teater Arena, Taman Budaya Jawa Tengah (TBJT) di Surakarta
Jl. Ir.Sutami NO.57 Kentingan, Jebres, Surakarta 57126
Tiket: Gratis / Terbuka untuk Umum

1, Gendhing Bonang / Gd.Babar Layar kt.4.kr. minggah 8, Pl.5
---sebagai pembuka acara
2, Tari Bedhaya Pangkur (1jam1/4)
Karya Tari PB IV&VIII Karaton Surakarta Hadiningrat
Nara Sumber : Ibu Sri Sutjiati Djoko Soehardjo (alm)

Produser: Michi Tomioka

Taman Budaya Jawa Tengah
API Fellowship (the Nippon Foundation)
Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (=LIPI)
Institut Seni Indonesia (=ISI) Surakarta

Ibu Rusini dosen ISI Surakarta
Ibu Tantin Sri Marwanti staf ISI Surakarta
Ibu Ninik Mulyani Sutrangi dosen ISI Surakarta
Ibu Saryuni Padminingsih dosen ISI Surakarta
Ibu Hadawiyah Endah Utami dosen ISI Surakarta
Ibu Sri Setyoasih dosen ISI Surakarta
Ibu Priyati Umiyatun pengajar SMKN8 Surakarta
Ibu Indah Nuraini dosen ISI Yogyakarta
Michi Tomioka

"Marsudi Renaning Manah (Marem)" dari kampung Kemlayan,Surakarta

Konsep Pagelaran Tari oleh Michi Tomioka
Pagelaran Tari ini dilakukan sebagai hasil penelitian oleh Michi Tomioka yang berjudul "Revaluing Javanese Court Dances (Srimpi and Bedhaya) in the Recent Social and Cultural Contexts" (= melihat kembali tari Keraton dalam konteks social dan budaya pada masa kini), atas hibah penelitian API Fellowship dari the Nippon Foundation dengan mitrakerja ISI Surakarta dan sponsor LIPI. Tema penelitian saya sesuai dengan tema besar yang diberikan API Fellowship, yaith; "Changing Identities and Their Social, Historical and
Cultural Contexts"

Tari Srimpi dan Bedhaya baru dikeluarkan dari tembok Keraton pada tahun 1970an, dalam proyek pemerintah PKJT (Pengembangan Kesenian Jawa Tengah), dan mengalami banyak perubahan dan inovasi sejak itu. Perubahan utama adalah (1) pemadatan, yaitu memperpendekkan durasi sajian tari sampai kira-kira 1/4, (2) irama cepat, dan (3) kekompakan dan kelampakan gerak, yaitu usaha menyatukan gerak dari setiap penari sampai detail. Muncul perubahan seperti ini tidak dipisahkan dari perubahan sosial dan budaya di Indonesia pada 1970an, ketika irama hidup mulai pesat dan konsep seni modern Barat dimasukkan.

Namun demikian, saya ingin melihat kembali koreofrafi tari Keraton yang sebelum tahun 1970an, dan saya mengutamakan bahwa setiap penari menghayati wiletan masing-masing dengan tafsiran gerak sendiri-sendiri. Maka dari itu, gerakan setiap penari memang tidak begitu lampak dan rapi seperti sajian tari masa kini. Kita tidak menyatukan gerak dengan hitungan, tetapi dengan rasa irama.

Selain itu, saya mencoba latihan bedhaya ini di tengah masyarakat / di luar tembok Keraton, Penari, pengrawit dan pengeprak untuk malam ini tidak dari Keraton. Banyak penari adalah murid nara sumber untuk malam ini dan / atau aktif menari dalam proyek PKJT. Pengrawit terdiri dari bapak-bapak seniman alam di kampung Kemlayan, dan beberapa dosen dan mahasiswa ISI Surakarta.

Nara sumber: Ibu Sri Sutjiati Djoko Soehardjo (alm) adalah mantan pengajar di SMKI Surakarta dan memasukkan materi Bedhaya Pangkur ke dalam kurikulm SMKI Surakarta. Di SMKI Surakarta materi ini telah diajarkan tanpa pemadatan seperti sajian malam ini, tetapi sudah dipadatkan oleh beliau sendiri.

Semoga pagelaran tari ini bermanfaat sebagai salah satu referensi tari gaya Surakarta.

Foto Poster
Foto pagelaran tari Bedhaya Pangkur pada tgl.4 Januari 1982 di Sasanamulya (dalam kompleks Karaton Surakarta Hadiningrat) dalam acara PKJT (=Pengembangan Kesenian Jawa Tengah), Koleksi Taman Budaya Jawa Tengah.

Taman Budaya Jawa Tengah di Surakartaにて
公演:Bedhaya Pangkur